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Geography Grade 10

How to Calculate Magnetic Declination in Geography



How to Calculate Magnetic Declination in Geography: First of all, let’s understand what Magnetic Declination is. The angle between magnetic north and true north is what called magnetic declination. Magnetic declination is also referred to as magnetic variation.

Magnetic declination ca also be understood as the Difference in degrees between True North and MAGNETIC North.

Did you know? By convention, declination is positive when magnetic north is east of true north, and negative when it is to the west. Isogonic lines are lines on the Earth’s surface along which the declination has the same constant value, and lines along which the declination is zero are called agonic lines. The lowercase Greek letter δ (delta) is frequently used as the symbol for magnetic declination.

Guide on how to Calculate Magnetic Declination in Geography

How to calculate magnetic bearing

Step 1: Determine the true bearing E.g 75°

Step 2: Determine the difference in years between the current year & the year
the Magnetic declination was measured (on topographic map). E.g. 2015 – 2005 = 10 years

Step 2: Calculate the total magnetic change
E.g 10 years x 2’ West = 20’ West (On the topographic map the change is 2’ West every year)

Step 3: Calculate the current magnetic declination
E.g 16°3’ West + 0°20’ West, When the mean annual change is west you add, & if the change is East, you subtract. = 16°23’ West Therefore, the magnetic declination for 2015 is 16°23’ west from True North.

Step 4: Calculate the magnetic bearing
E.g True Bearing + Current Magnetic Declination
= 75° + 16°23’
= 91°21’ west.

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Geography Grade 10

Main Reasons why is South Africa regarded as a developing country



Reasons why is South Africa regarded as a developing country: South Africa has a great economic infrastructure and natural resources that characterize its economy. In South Africa, there is outstanding progress in the field of industry and manufacturing. South Africa, however, is still characterised as a developing country and not a developed country.

6 Characteristics of a Developed Country

1. Has a high income per capita. Developed countries have high per capita incomes each year. By having a high income per capita, the country’s economic value will be boosted. Therefore, the amount of poverty can be overcome.

2. Security Is Guaranteed. The level of security of developed countries is more secure compared to developing countries. This is also a side effect of sophisticated technology in developed countries. With the sophisticated technology, security facilities and weapons technology also develop for the better.

3. Guaranteed Health. In addition to ensuring security, health in a developed country is also guaranteed. This is characterized by a variety of adequate health facilities, such as hospitals and medical staff who are trained and reliable.

4. Low unemployment rate. In developed countries, the unemployment rate is relatively small because every citizen can get a job and work.

5. Mastering Science and Technology. The inhabitants of developed countries tend to have mastered science and technology from which new useful products such as the industrial pendant lights were introduced to the market. Therefore, in their daily lives, they have also used sophisticated technology and modern tools to facilitate their daily lives.

6. The level of exports is higher than imports. The level of exports in developed countries is higher than the level of imports because of the superior human resources and technology possessed.

5 Reasons why is South Africa regarded as a developing country

1. South Africa has a low Income per year. Annual income in developing countries is not as high as in developed countries due to the high unemployment rate.

2. In South Africa, security is not guaranteed. Unlike in developed countries, security in developing countries is still very minimal and inappropriate. Therefore, crime rates in developed countries such as South Africa tend to be relatively high.

3. South Africa has a fast-growing population. According to the World Population Review, South Africa’s population will continue to grow until 2082, reaching just over 80 million people before plateauing and slightly declining the rest of the century. South Africa’s population growth rate is currently 1.28% per year. Developing countries have a very large average population compared to developed countries because of uncontrolled population development. This is also a result of the lack of education and health facilities.

4. The unemployment rate in South Africa is high. South Africa has an unemployment rate of 34.4% in the second quarter of 2021. In developing countries, the unemployment rate is still relatively high because the available job vacancies are not evenly distributed. In addition, the level of uneven education is also one of the factors causing the large unemployment rate.

5. Imports are higher than exports. Due to the low management of natural resources and human resources in developing countries, developing countries more often buy goods from abroad. To eliminate the barriers of being a developed country, South Africa must reduce imports and must refine and develop its agricultural sector.



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Geography Grade 10

Describing how the social and environmental responsibility could help to fight poverty



Describing how the social and environmental responsibility could help to fight poverty. The reason why social and environmental responsibility can contribute to fighting poverty is that economic activities flourish in a stable society that is under a good environmental climate.

Environmental social responsibility considers people, planet and profit issues that lead to sustained competitive advantage. Creating socially responsible and sustainable employment practices help organizations meet current needs without compromising the ability to meet future needs.


Social Responsibilities that fight poverty

Social responsibility means that businesses, in addition to maximizing shareholder value, must act in a manner that benefits society. Social responsibility has become increasingly important to investors and consumers who seek investments that are not just profitable but also contribute to the welfare of society and the environment. There are a number of social responsibility initiatives that can contribute to fighting poverty in the society, such as:

  • Improving labor policies that reward employees more
  • Participating in fairtrade that incourage small businesses to also grow
  • Charitable giving to the poors
  • Volunteering in the community to do meaningful work for free.

Environmental Responsibilities taht fight poverty

  • Implement corporate policies that benefit the environment, which in turn, ensures longevity of the business. Thus, more people still stay employed as the business runs.
  • Socially and environmentally conscious investments aimed at growing the business while empowering communities. Example: planting more trees
  • Waste and recycling in a way that financially rewards citizens of communities
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Geography Grade 10

The negative impact of radiation on the economy of South Africa



The negative impact of radiation on the economy of South Africa:

What is Referred to as Radiation on Earth?

What is Referred to as Radiation on Earth is called atmospheric radiation, which is the flow of electromagnetic energy between the sun and the Earth’s surface as it is influenced by clouds, aerosols, and gases in the Earth’s atmosphere. It includes both solar radiation (sunlight) and long-wave (thermal) radiation.

How does radiation cause Global Warming?

How does radiation cause Global Warming? Well,according to Biological Diversity, Certain gases in the atmosphere are called greenhouse gases — specifically, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, tropospheric ozone, and CFCs — because they allow shortwave radiation from the sun to pass through the atmosphere and warm the Earth’s surface. The energy that then radiates out from the surface, longwave radiation, is trapped by the same greenhouse gases, warming the air, oceans, and land. This process, appropriately dubbed “the greenhouse effect,” is how global warming occurs. Black carbon, a particle rather than a gas, also has a very large warming impact.

The negative impact of radiation on the economy of South Africa

There are many negative impacts of radiation that can affect South African Economy. Most of these negative impacts are as a results of global warming, which ultimately causes radiation. Below are some of the nagative impacts of radiation on the South African economy:

  • Mass migration and security threats. Global warming is likely to increase the number of “climate refugees” in South Africa. Citizens may be forced to leave their homes in South Africa because of drought, flooding, or other climate-related disasters.
  • Damage to property and infrastructure. Sea-level rise, floods, droughts, wildfires, and extreme storms require extensive repair of essential infrastructure such as homes, roads, bridges, railroad tracks, airport runways, power lines, dams, levees, and seawalls.
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